○「転移魂 Transfer spirit」を提唱したHaskell教授の本。
Robert E. Haskell（2000）TRANSFER OF LEARNING: COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION. Academic Press.
some academicians have suggested that “”transfer is dead,” Haskell has provided a frame of reference for a reconstruction of our view of transfer.
Transfer of learning is our use of past learning when learning something new and the application of that learning to both similar and new situations.
beginning with the work of Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) in 1901 to the present
there is now considerable rigorous psychological research on transfer, with most of the research coming from the fields of instructional and cognitive psychology, the latter a subfield of psychology concerned with investigating how we think, reason, and process information.
The book is a prescriptive how-to book in providing eleven principles with their research-based justification.
the United States has an ambivalent relationship with education and learning.’ We are an overly pragmatic society requiring instant success: not a useful prescription for transfer of learning.
In fact, the entire history of transfer of learning in terms of the identical elements model should be seen as the consequence of a lack of adequate theory development
American psychology considers itself closely tied to the “”facts,”” whereas European psychology sees the merit of general theory development.Moreover, all theories need not be quantitative.
The great social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) had a famous dictum: there’s nothing so practical as good theory.
●Ch.1 The State of Education and the Double Transfer of Learning Paradox
The aim of all education, from elementary, secondary, vocational, and industrial training, to higher education, is to apply what we learn in different contexts, and to recognize and extend that learning to completely new situations.Collectively, this is called transfer of learning.
In otherwords, at best, what’s learned in the classroom, stays in the classroom.
But as I have documented in the first chapter of my book, Reengineering Corporate Training: Intellectual Capital and Transferof Learning, beyond a-and this is, at best-very concrete technical level of training, most business training programs have failed to demonstrate transfer of learning .
There’s a missing piece, however, in the learning organization literature: the transfer of learning.
the history of research findings on transfer suggests it seldom occurs in instructional settings.
but it is less common to find convincing examples of “”far-transfer,”” particularly far-transfer extending over longer periods of time following the training.
As Howard Gardner points out in his book, The Unschooled Mind, even when schools appear to be teaching successfully, students fail to transfer.
Even in corporate training (as opposed to education), the failure of transfer is widespread.
Instead, we’ve relied on participant reactions and anecdotes.
Based on the transfer research, in the next chapter I present a scheme describing six levels of transfer from least difficult to most difficult.
Will students then demonstrate the ability to use higher-order thinking skills in the classroom? Maybe….
●Ch.2 Transfer of Learning: What It Is and Why It’s Important
The word transfer is derived from trans, meaning across or over, and ferre, meaning to bear, thus, to carry over. In both a trivial and a profound sense-as no situation is ever exactly the same-all learning is transfer of learning. In short, virtually all learning involves carrying over previous learning to new situations.
Transfer, the seeing of similarities,
Because of its fundamental nature, transfer is known by many names.
its a reference to the “”transfer”” or “”carrying over”” meaning from one situation to another.
The bare-bones essence of transfer, then, is simple: it’s equivalence and it can be summarized by the ＝ sign.
Transfer is integrally responsible for classifying things.
six levels of transfer.
Level 1, nonspecific transfer; Level 2, application transfer; Level 3, context transfer; Level 4, near transfer; Level 5, far transfer; and, Level 6, displacement or creative transfer.
there is no system of classification directly based on a precise degree of similarity. “
Level 6: Displacement or creative transfer. This refers to transferring learning in a way that leads to more than the insight of “”that is like this.”” n the interaction of the newly discovered similarity between the old and the new, a new concept is created. “
Each level of transfer just described is based on judgments of similarity.
Since nothing-by definition-is identical to anything else, identical elements are in fact only similar elements. This fact is often overlooked,”
Transfer can be classified into two basic categories: (a) the type of knowledge that the transfer is based on and (b) the specific kinds of transfer.Content-to-content transfer
Procedural-to-procedural transfer, also known as skill-to-skill transfer,
General or nonspecific transfer
Learning from history, however, is transfer of learning; it’s the very paradigm of transfer: past knowledge influencing present learning.
the concept of learning in psychology, socialization in sociology, adaptation in biology, and acculturation in anthropology are very similar concepts.
Transfer of learning is thus not only extremely economical in terms ofan individual’s learning resources, it creates creativity and learning itself; it helps us to efficiently store, remember, integrate, process, and retrieve information.
Douglas Detterman is one exponent of the view that most of the transfer studies that do manage to demonstrate some low level of transfer don’t deserve to be called transfer of learning. I say he is one proponent of this view because there aren’t many.
Edward Kelly’s claim is much more radical. He rejects the very idea of transfer, claiming that “”the concept of transfer does not serve any educationally useful purpose.”” He maintains that transfer is “”an empirically meaningless or a worthless notion.
Therefore the concept of transfer of learning has no special merit or claim. For Kelly, all is learning-clear and simple.
A close look at the famous 1908 experiment of Charles Judd, who first challenged Thorndike’s identical elements model, suggests that transfer not only occurs on the basis of identical elements between two problems, but also can occur via the abstract general principle underlying a phenomena (see chapter 5).
Detterman’s criticism may be summarized as follows: When subjects (a) are told that previous material may be useful in the solution of a new problem, (b) are informed about strategies and methods known to improve learning on specific kinds of material, (c) are instructed to use those strategies on that material, (d) have the similarity pointed out to them “”in some not-so-subtle way,”” (e) or given other hints about the similarity between the problems to be solved, Detterman says it “”hardly seems reasonable to refer to the solution of the new problem as the result of transfer.
transfer is achieved only by using the above kinds of “”tricks,”” as he calls them.
●Ch.3 To Teach or Not to Teach for Transfer: That is the Question
Edward Thorndike, the eminent experimental psychologist who initiated the experimental research on transfer of learning, concluded as early as 1901 that transfer from instructional settings does not occur.
Piaget’s cognitive stages of development as naturally occurring stages have been seriously questioned by rigorous recent research.Current thinking is that the differences between stages may be due to the quality of the knowledge base and/or memory capacity, not to naturally occurring maturational changes.
using experimental and control group design, found no evidence for the superior learning or transfer attributable to the accelerated learning methods.
In general, U.S. culture is pragmatic, expects instant success, is generally anti-intellectual, having little tolerance for anything that isn’t “”concrete,”” that isn’t immediately “”useful,”” and for anything that’s called “”theoretical”” and “”abstract.”
what I will be outlining in the remaining chapters of this book is a framework for achieving general transfer.
Dewey’s approach was defeated
Although my approach to transfer does not directly evolve from this progressive educational philosophy, many of its requirements and principles are similar.
Learners need to acquire a large primary knowledge base or high level of expertise in the area that transfer is required
Some level of knowledge base in subjects outside the primary area is necessary for significant transfer
An understanding of the history of the transfer area(s) is vital.
Motivation, or more specifically, a “”spirit of transfer,”” is a primary prerequisite for transfer to occur
Learners need to understand what transfer of learning is and how it works.
an orientation to think and encode our learning in transfer terms is necessary, for significant transfer doesn’t happen automatically
Cultures of transfer need to be created
An understanding of the theory underlying the transfer area is crucial
Hours of practice and drill are requisite.
Significant transfer requires time to incubate; it tends not to occur instantaneously.
Finally, and most importantly, learners must observe and read the works of people who are exemplars of transfer thinking.
learning isn’t only welded to subject matter, but is often welded to the physical place where the learning occurred, and how it’s encoded during the learning process.
●CHAPTER 4 Transfer and Everyday Reasoning: Personal Development, Cultural Diversity, and Decision Making
the initial paradox of transfer is that although transfer has been clearly demonstrated throughout the history of transfer research, it seldom occurs as the result of formal instruction; nevertheless, it occurs widely in everyday life.
when we use examples and instances of an event, we have already engaged in transfer thinking.
probably involves assimilating the novel situation to other situations that are in some way similar-that is, reasoning by similarity.
In the context of therapy, Freud called these remindings, “”transference phenomena.”” Transference is when a patient transfers, projects, or attributes the characteristics of a significant other, say a parent, onto the therapist, and as a consequence reacts to the therapist as he or she would to the significant other person.
The finding of similarity or difference [italics added] is the key step in the legal process””.Attorneys and judges are always arguing whether some previous case is applicable to a current case.
German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1 724-1804) called analogies of experience. Analogies of experience refers to the fact that I have certain experiences that I infer are similar to yours. I can, therefore, understand you by analogy, by transferring or mapping my experiences onto yours. Analogies of experience are perhaps our first transfers.
After all, it’s from philosophy that all the modern sciences are derived. As the original science, philosophy has worked out the problem of inferring other people’s feelings and thoughts more extensively and systematically than have other disciplines,
Prejudices and biases about one ethnic group are likely to transfer (or generalize) to other groups with like characteristics,
Minorities seem to understand the majority more than the majority understands minorities. After all, minorities experience both worlds.
The racism and sexism stereotype connection isn’t a novel example,
Racial stereotypes and dynamics of discrimination.
That politicians make policy decisions on the basis of past historical and political events isn’t surprising.
●CHAPTER 5 A Brief History of Transfer and Transfer as History
Learning from history, then, is the very exemplar of transfer.
We in the United States tend to dislike history; we are an ahistorical people. We tend to live in a constricted present, future, and pragmatic tense: for us, history, is the day before yesterday.
Transfer research was being conducted under such headings as stimulus generalization, constancy, transposition phenomena, isomorphic relations, metaphor, analogical reasoning, assimilation, and a host of others.
the seven major models of transfer. Historically, however, only the first four have been recognized as primary models.
1. Formal Discipline Model of Transfer
2.Identical Elements Model
The classical formal discipline model was diametrically opposed to Thorndike’s identical elements model.
3.General Principle Model
Judd’s model replaced the old battle between the formal discipline and the identical elements model. The identical elements versus general principle battle still rages today.
4.Stimulus Generalization Model
Stimulus generalization is the evocation of a nonreinforced response to a stimulus that is very similar to an original conditioned stimulus.
5.The Cognitive Information-Processing Model
a schema is a hypothetical cognitive structure by which information and knowledge is thought to be organized and processed; new information is assimilated, learned, and interpreted in terms of relevant pre-existing schemata.
6.The Metacognition Model
Metacognitive research is viewed by many as the “”new approach to”” transfer.
7.The Instructional Model
This shift from transfer as an applied instructional concept to a cognitive and metacognitive mechanism has constituted a paradigm shift.
General Models of Mind
four basic “”philosophical”” views or models of mind.
In the first model, the rationalist view, cognitive processes are limited by general properties of the mind itself that impose constraints on what we can experience.
In the second model, the empiricist view, cognitive processes are seen as created by external stimuli.
The third model is a social and historical view of the mind. It assumes that transfer processes largely reside in the social and interpersonal world of human interaction.
The fourth model is an ecological view of the mind. It assumes that “”transfer”” is inherent in the external physical world, but not only in the social world.
NEO-IDENTICAL ELEMENTS MODEL REVISITED
most of the analogical reasoning and isomorphic relations approaches, based on concrete features of similarity, are in effect a neo-identical elements approach to transfer, with many of the same limitations of Thorndike’s original identical elements model.
THE FORMAL DISCIPLINE MODEL REVISITED
Typically, the classic formal discipline model of transfer has been misunderstood.
The formal discipline model has also maintained that simple long, hard, and repetitive practice in a discipline would result in transfer, somewhat like developing a muscle.
the formal structures of certain other disciplines may in fact transfer to everyday reasoning.
learning probability statistics may generally transfer to everyday reasoning.
They suggest that having learned the rules of one field, students were able to solve problems outside that field using what they had learned in the first field. They conclude that this supports the doctrine of formal discipline.
●Ch.6 Knowledge Base and Transfer: On the Usefulness of Useless Knowledge
the focus is on short-cuts to learning. The problem is there are no short-cuts.
general transfer does not occur in most educational and work situations. I suggest that this is largely because we have not paid sufficient attention to the role of knowledge in learning to think.
There is virtually no evidence showing that experts have access to general problem-solving techniques that novices lack.
to Ask a Question, One Must Know Enough to Know What Is Not Known.
students who are very low in prior knowledge cannot benefit from cognitive strategy instruction.
Piaget’s stage theory has come under severe criticism in recent years and has been all but abandoned by many developmental psychologists, who now conclude that the young child doesn’t think all that differently from adults; they are not as illogical and concrete in their thinking as we once thought.
Typically, cognitive and instructional scientists describe four basic kinds of knowledge: (a) declarative knowledge, (b) procedural knowledge, (c) strategic knowledge, and (d) conditional knowledge. I will add a fifth kind, not typically mentioned: (e) theoretical knowledge.
Procedural knowledge is how-to knowledge
Declarative knowledge is knowledge of or about something.
in my view declarative knowledge-knowledge of or about something-is the most crucial for transfer.
To achieve general transfer, however, often requires much more than immediately useful knowledge.
knowledge that appeared to have absolutely no use, but that years later someone saw as something other than what it appeared to be; the person was therefore able to transfer the “”useless”” knowledge to other areas, which later had major applied importance.
today’s useless knowledge may be tomorrow’s crucial piece of information.
deep learning that leads to transfer requires “”useless”” and “”irrelevant”” knowledge (relative to a here-and-now context and time frame).
A subset of what I call useless knowledge is irrelevant knowledge. Unlike useless knowledge, irrelevant knowledge is considered useful, but just not relevant to one’s immediate subject or problem.
some of the elements that I suggest distinguish training from education: instruction given without “”irrelevant”” knowledge is best characterized as training, not education.
irrelevant for diagnosing one case may nevertheless be quite relevant
But research has now found experts in most fields are differentiated from novices not by their strategies but by their rich stores of knowledge.
there are two kinds of expertise. One is routine expertise, the other adaptive expertise.
This structured knowledge enables them to “”see into”” a problem more quickly than a novice.
The two camps, the knowledge-base camp-sometimes referred to as the Knowledge Mafia-and the learning/thinking strategy camp-which I refer to as the cookbook camp-remain largely divided.
false assumptions about the nature of intelligence; it is also based on what is called the “”halo effect”” (The halo effect is when some one is highly regarded, we often tend to consider their opinions in other areas to be valid ones).
●Ch.7 The Spirit of Transfer and Personality: Motivation, Meaning, and Emotion
the question of the role of learner attitudes … is rarely addressed in the literature.
In short, I will suggest that general transfer is the consequence of what I refer to as the spirit of transfer, not simply-nor even significantly-to educational methods, learner strategies, or teaching techniques.
I have become convinced that without the transfer “”spirit,”” there is precious little transfer.
The spirit of transfer refers to a personality attribute; more importantly it is a learner’s state of being, not just a set of situational learning strategies or instructional implants.
specifically selected the term spirit because it means so much more than motivation.
A spirit for transfer infuses information with meaning; for it’s meaning that transforms information into transferable knowledge.
there are two basic personality styles called generalizers and particularizers.
Zajonc maintained that emotion and cognition are basically separate processing systems, whereas Lazarus maintained that they are essentially one system.
Daniel Goleman entitled, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than I.Q., has placed the issue of emotion in mental and behavioral achievement in the public consciousness.
contrary to the identical elements theory of transfer, Eich concludes that “”converging evidence … suggests that how well information transfers from one environment to another depends on how similar the environments feel )italics added) rather than on how similar they look.
Transfer, then, has implications not only for processing information, but for the development of personality.
In the early part of the 1900s, there was a social movement called the moral education movement.
it was thought that to be a good public speaker (i.e., a rhetor or rhetorician) required that the rhetor be a “”good man.”
I would like to suggest, however, that the ancient notion of the “”good man”” is nearly synonymous with what I am calling the spirit of transfer, and indeed is both a cause and consequence of transfer.
The good rhetor was concerned with seeking Truth, the bad rhetor with persuasion and argumentation.
there have been no shortage of leaders in history that we consider immoral or not good people, yet almost by definition-being leaders-they were good orators.
One way to assist in creating conditions for the spirit of transfer is to develop what Roy Pea has referred to as a “”culture of transfer.
knowledge and experience cannot be transferred to the next generation.
According to Howard Gardner ‘ wisdom may involve a considerable amount of common sense and originality in one or more areas, conjoined with a seasoned “”metaphorizing”” or analogizing capacity, which in my terms spell t-r-an-s-f-e-r.
wisdom is the ability to “”appropriately”” transfer past experience to present circumstances.
Cookbook and strategy approaches to transfer are like trying to pass on wisdom to the next generation, and attempts to do so perhaps reflects a lack of wisdom.
Modern research has rediscovered the importance of a community for influencing transfer.
●Ch.8 Cultures and Contexts of Transfer: Social Origins and Support Systems
Western society in general, and U.S. psychologists in particular, have a long tradition of seeing the individual as separate and distinct from the collective (anthropological), societal (sociological), and group (team) contexts of learning, despite the fact that for nearly one hundred years we have known that just being in the presence of others facilitates individual performance.
If we adopt the view that learning is situated, contextually and culturally, that transfer is social in a fundamental way, then we understand also that learning occurs in the context of people engaging in social activities.
situated learning is not new. Situated learning is a contemporary version of educational theorists like the American philosopher and educator John Dewey (1859-1952), the Russian psychologist Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896-1934), and other in- terfactional psychologists.
The sociohistorical view assumes that transfer processes reside not so much in an individual mind but in the social world; as such, the focus is essentially on transfer structures that exist within social activities, not in the individual mind.
Instead, knowing is a property that is relative to situations, an ability to interact with things and other people in various ways.
Perhaps the largest breach of context concerns learning in the classroom versus the everyday world. It is in students’ everyday world that they are expected to apply (transfer?) what they have learned in the classroom.
some of the most spectacular and widely decried failures of transfer-failures to apply knowledge learned in school to practical problems encountered in everyday life-may largely reflect the fact that material taught in school is often disconnected [italics added] from any clear goal and hence lacks a primary cue [italics added] for retrieval in potentially relevant problem contexts.
Howard Gardner points out that given the consistent differences found on intelligence tests showing females scoring somewhat lower on spatial ability,
Classic in organizational and industrial psychology is the “”rate buster”” phenomenon. Rate busting refers to a person in a work situation who is much more productive than his or her fellow workers. Because the high rate of productivity makes the other workers look inferior, they bring measures to bear on the person to reduce their productivity. In group dynamics, we refer to these measures as group pressure.
American parents tend to accept a child’s weak areas, choosing to concentrate on their strengths and ignoring the weaknesses, Asian parents tend to encourage their children to practice harder and longer.
In short,promoting transfer requires a systems approach.
college campuses do not typically create a culture of transfer. Even most classrooms are not structured for transfer. Students in most academic settings have no culture of support to facilitate transfer.
In contrast, learners in corporate environments have a built-in context of transfer application and support: their work environment.
A culture-of-transfer approach is exemplified most systematically by business training consultants Mary Broad and John Newstrom in their book, Transfer of Training. They approach transfer almost exclusively as a managerial and organizational problem.
least-transfer is made from the basic design of learning communities. At least theoretically, learning communities have the “”Right Stuff.”
The U.S. culture has not and is not supportive of transfer. As I outlined in chapter 1, the public attitude in the United States toward education is and has been, at best, ambivalent, and at worst, anti-intellectual,
poverty and the instability of the family structure. U.S. high school students come more often from single-parent homes, work more hours at a job, and do less homework than comparable students in other countries.
●Ch.9 When Theory Fails: The Importance of a Learner’s Theoretical Knowledge for Transfer
Theory is simply forming a hypotheses (roughly, guesses) about something, testing those hypotheses, then taking the individual results of those tests and putting them together into a logically coherent and consistent explanation.
Lacking theory, there are, in fact, no facts. Theory creates facts. A fact is the end product of a theory.As Weimer correctly observes, “”What we learn to see in ‘facts’ are similarity relationships
Before they acquire theoretical knowledge, children are famous for runaway transfer or overgeneralization.
differently from adults. This assumption is largely based on the work of the well-known Swiss psychologist, lean Piaget.
in recent years, however, many developmental psychologists have abandoned much of Piaget’s scheme.
The problem is, however, that these theories are all too often erroneous. Implicitly erroneous theories influence learning and have serious consequences for teaching and transfer.
Studies consistently demonstrate that naive or beginning physics and biology students hold fundamentally erroneous theories about these subjects that negatively influence their learning and transfer.
●Ch.10 The Two Faces of Practice: Transfer and That Old-Time Lesson Drill
practice is just what the transfer research suggests is required to promote transfer.
The evidence, however, is to the contrary. Expertise is largely due to practice, practice, and then more practice. K. Anders Ericsson and Neil Charness, in what is considered a seminal research-based paper entitled, “”Expert Performance: Its Structure and Acquisition,””‘Z found that comprehensive reviews comparing the beginning ages and the amount of practice for international, national, and regional-level performers in many different areas, those who attained higher levels of performance tended to start practicing from 2 to 5 years earlier than did the less accomplished performers.
There is a direct and continuous correlation between the number of hours spent on practice and degree of expertise.
The question is, then, what does appropriate practice mean? The short answer is: reflective practice, not the mindless rote drill that was often standard in the days of the one-room schoolhouse.
Another type of practice not often recognized is mental practice. It is sometimes called mental rehearsal. This type of practice is not to be underestimated.
Unfortunately, most of these vocational programs train students instead of educating them.
I have come to believe this: Unless schools create cultures of transfer, teach about transfer, and instill a spirit of transfer, requiring a well-learned knowledge base, and practice and drill of some systematic sort, teachers can adopt any instructional method they like in the classroom but, with few exceptions, neither significant learning nor significant transfer will take place.
●Ch.11 The Similarity-Based Brain: Evolutionary and Neurological Bases of Transfer
the neurological mechanisms undergirding transfer accomplish evolution’s “”goal”” of reducing input to our nervous system.
contrary to popular conception, it’s probably the left hemisphere that’s underdeveloped.Furthermore, the right-hemisphere functions develop optimally only when interacting with the highly developed left hemisphere.
modularist view. In this view the mind is made up of a series of separate modules, with each specialized for a particular task. Howard Gardner’s well-known book, Frames of Mind, essentially represents this view.
We have seen that the transformations of invariance, the transforming of apparent differences into “”sameness,”” or similarity undergirds transfer of learning.
●Ch.12 The Harmonic Structure of Mind: Higher Level Everyday Transfer Thinking
the concepts of adaptation in biology (the alteration in an organism resulting from natural selection enabling the organism to survive), learning in psychology (an individual’s acquiring knowledge through practice, training, or experience), socialization in sociology (individuals assimilating the values and behavior patterns of their culture), and acculturation in anthropology (adopting cultural traits or social patterns of another culture) are essentially the same concept.
The great Swiss psychologist, lean Piaget (1896-1980), although known mostly for his developmental theory of children’s cognitive development, thought of himself as a genetic epistemologist, that is, as one who studies the biological basis of how we acquire and develop logic and thought. Piaget was a master at transfer thinking.
understood that transfer ability and mathematics were related, though independent.
He believed that the primary cognitive operation that reflected mathematical structure was the ability to systematically use analogical reasoning.
to explain transfer is to repeat the some thing. However, that is not to say that it’s simply repeating the exact same thing; rather it’s repeating the some thing with its variations. In mathematics such repetition is called the differentiation of an invariant through its various mathematical forms.
many who are good at transfer are also good at math.
the underlying structure of poetry and mathematics are very similar. Once again, we see that the basic structure of transfer is hardwired.
I would like to conclude with a quote from the poet William Blake (17571827), who intuitively exemplified transfer thinking in the harmonic-like structure of his poem, Songs of Innocence.
See the world in a grain of sand
And heaven in a wild flower,
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
And eternity in an hour.
Transfer thinking, then, is a kind of poetry, as well as a kind of mathematics.
To achieve expertise in transfer thinking, then, is to apprentice oneself to mathematicians and poets.
●CODA Deep-Context Teaching for Transfer
In brief, deep-context teaching involves addressing the conditions surrounding a subject matter, in general, and students’ expectations, beliefs, and values relating to learning, in specific.
negative transfer. The everyday theories students possess act like the antibodies in the immune system, which function to neutralize and eject foreign material.
we have other insulting terms for people who learn and think: We call them eggheads, nerds, geeks, etc., who are out of contact with the “”real”” world.
We glorify sports and entertainment figures, but not people who think.
terms of holding a Christian belief in the literal biblical account of Genesis and Creationism, how is it possible for a teacher to teach, and for a student to engage in deep learning, about Darwinian evolution?
There is a downside to deep-context teaching: It has a price. The price is that the time spent dealing with deep contexts reduces the traditional time committed to directly teaching the subject matter itself.
But what choice do we have if we are to still call what we do in the classroom “”education,”” as opposed to “”training,”” and if our goal is transfer?